Publications

February 2024

February 2, 2024

How Illegal Betting and Related Money Laundering Flourished Despite 'Crypto Winter' explores how the use of cryptocurrencies – particularly Tether – is now increasingly the norm in illegal betting markets as we enter 2024.

New Research shows the Massive Scale of Illegal Betting in South Korea ARF Council member Tak Sung Hyun provides a summary in English of the research prepared and published by the Korean Institute of Criminology and Justice, which includes key findings, and recommendations to tackle this huge problem of illegal betting.

The Model of Combatting Illegal Betting outlines the components of a national model that is an example to other countries in combatting illegal betting, which requires collaboration between government agencies, private sector entities in the technology and finance sectors, racing and sports operators as well as regulators.

Variable Betting Duty & the Impact on Turnover, Illegal Betting & Taxation Revenues

November 6, 2023

The report provides an analysis of variable Betting Duty (tax) rates on racing and sports betting operators to assess the impact on legal markets of higher rates and the related impact on betting turnover in the illegal betting markets. The economic impact of excessive Betting Duty in the Internet age is to drive consumers to the illegal betting market.

How Organised Crime Operates Illegal Betting, Cyber Scams & Modern Slavery in Southeast Asia

October 10, 2023

The report shows how illegal betting and related cyber-scam operations linked to human trafficking are utilised by transnational organised groups causing corruption and financial crime on a global scale.

ARF Council Talking Points 2023

July 19, 2023

The document is an up-to-date summary of the key issues that the ARF Council believes are relevant to illegal betting, which are broad and range from driving corruption in racing and sports, the growth of organised crime,the negative social issues (e.g. greater gambling harm, people trafficking),and taxation loss.

Anti-Illegal Betting & Related Financial Crime Bulletin July 2020 to December 2022

February 10, 2023

This compendium is a collection of ARF Council Bulletin articles from July 2020 to December 2022 covering topics related to anti-illegal betting and related financial crime.

State of Illegal Betting Report

May 18, 2022

The State of Illegal Betting report examines the current situation of illegal betting, what this means in relation to legal betting, and what both will look like in the future. The report includes analysis of more than 500 betting websites to examine their licensing status, products offered, website traffic, server locations and other data points.

The report also includes a series of commentaries from ARF Council members on how sports data can fuel illegal betting; the greater negative impacts of illegal betting and gambling-related harm; international and intergovernmental issues around corruption in sport; and notable examples and development in sports law in relation to illegal betting.  The report also includes contributions from INTERPOL and the UNODC regarding their views on the relationship between illegalbetting, sports corruption, and organised crime.

How China's Crackdown on Illegal Betting Impacts Global Betting Markets

September 1, 2021

This report examines Mainland China’s crackdown on illegal betting from 2018 to mid-2021, its background, purpose and impact. It is based on official announcements and statistics, 315 Mainland Chinese media articles related to illegal betting, and English-language reports. The report details:

  • Why China is so concerned about illegal betting
  • Insights into the scale of the problem
  • The crackdown’s impact on wider illegal betting in Asia
  • Notable shared characteristics of illegal betting operations
  • Why China’s crackdown is relevant to other jurisdictions

A Report of Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies in Illegal Betting

May 1, 2021

This report explains how and why cryptocurrencies have become increasingly prevalent in illegal betting, and highlights the threats this poses.

A Report of Illegal Betting Growth During the COVID-19 Pandemic

May 1, 2021

This report examines the impact of the pandemic on illegal betting in Asia in 2020 and finds that COVID-19 caused a surge in illegal betting, and has caused disruption and changes in customer behaviour that will continue to be felt even after the pandemic subsides.

Good Practices in Addressing Illegal Betting: A Handbook for Racing and Sports Organisations to Uphold Integrity

October 19, 2020

This Handbook highlights the risks to the integrity of horse racing and other sports from illegal betting-related sports corruption, and provides practical guidance to administrators and other key stakeholders for mitigating against and combatting such corruption.

Practical guidance in the Handbook includes an overview of major issues around illegal betting, how to conduct bet monitoring and betting analysis, intelligence gathering and analysis, how to conduct illegal betting investigations, and how to engage stakeholders to combat illegal betting and related corruption.

Illegal Betting in an Asian Context

December 18, 2018

This paper covers illegal betting markets in six ARF jurisdictions. Although these jurisdictions are different in many ways, key commonalities were found in relation to illegal betting:

  • it funds organised crime,
  • it harms society directly and indirectly, and
  • it is a threat to sporting integrity.

This paper provides insights into the scale and nature of these negative impacts.